You probably use elevators on a daily basis without ever thinking about how they function to get you to your destination. If your building has an elevator, though, you must understand the fundamentals of how the elevator works. Knowing how elevators work on a basic level will help you operate and maintain a safe and dependable elevator so that all visitors to your building can enjoy a pleasant journey.
Hydraulic and cable elevators are the two basic types of lift spare parts, and both will be discussed here. Continue reading!
Important Facts to Consider
Before we go into the mechanics of each type of elevator, there are a few broad concepts to grasp about how elevators work.
First and foremost, how do elevators decide what to do?
A computer tells the elevator where the car is, where passengers want to travel, and where each floor is in all elevator kinds.
How do elevators figure out how many people to pick up before traveling to their destinations?
Load sensors in elevators notify the elevator how much weight is on board. When the elevator reaches its weight limit, it will proceed directly to the passengers’ destinations without stopping to take fresh elevator calls.
If an elevator is overloaded when it comes to a halt, the doors will remain open until the weight is removed and the elevator is safe to operate again.
How do elevators know not to close doors on passengers boarding?
Motion sensors are used in elevators to prevent elevator doors from closing on people.
Elevators that are powered by hydraulics
Hydraulic elevators are powered by hydraulic features. A cylinder, a piston, a fluid reservoir (sometimes known as a tank), a rotary pump, a valve, and some form of hydraulic fluid are all included in these elevators. The hydraulic fluid in most hydraulic elevators is oil.
When the elevator is told to go up, the pump of the elevator delivers hydraulic fluid into the cylinder and closes a valve. The fluid is subsequently pressurized, and the piston is pushed upwards by the closing valve. The elevator will be propelled upward until it reaches its destination as a result of this operation. The elevator’s pump cuts off when it reaches the floor it’s going to, and the elevator stops moving.
As the elevator goes down towards its destination, the elevator’s valve opens and releases hydraulic fluid into the reservoir.
Elevators with ropes
To operate, roping elevators rely on balancing weight. Steel ropes, a sheave that hoists the ropes, an electric motor, a counterweight, guide rails, and a gear train are all included in these elevators.
The counterweight balances the elevator’s weight and that of its passengers, which is how ropes elevators operate. The elevator is moved up and down by an electric motor.
Understanding the Concept of Safety
In the event of a malfunction, both hydraulic and ropes elevators rely on a few safety devices. Because a single steel rope can support the weight of an elevator car, the steel ropes of a roped elevator serve as their first line of defense.
In the event that the elevator begins to move too swiftly, built-in braking devices work to grip onto the rail. In the event of a power failure, the elevator is stopped by electromagnetic brakes.
In the event that other safety measures fail, a shock-absorber device (typically a piston positioned in an oil-filled cylinder) is installed at the bottom of the elevator shaft to cushion the elevator car’s landing.
It’s critical to understand how elevators work if you want to keep your building’s elevators safe and reliable.